کارت زرد جلب کننده حشرات چیست؟ کارتهای رنگی یا تلههای چسبی برای مبارزه حشرات و یا شناسایی آفتها استفاده میشود. کارت زرد یک روش غیر شمیایی برای مبارزه با حشرات است که بیشتر در گلخانهها کاربرد دارد. بسیاری از آفتهای گلخانه مانند انواع شتهها، مگس سفید بالک، تریپس ها، به کارت زرد علاقهمند بوده و جذب این رنگ شده و به آن میچسبند.
از این روش میتوان برای کنترل آفت و همچنین شناسایی آفتها در گلخانه یا مزارع استفاده کرد.
این کارتها را باید در کنار گیاهان در گلخانه با فاصله کم قرار داد. فاصله بین کارتها بستگی به نوع گلخانه و نوع آفتهای موجود میباشد.
جنس این کارتها از پلاستیک براق PVC میباشد سایز این کارتها معمولاً ۲۰ در ۳۰ سانتی متر میباشد.
از قرار دادن کارتها در معرض گرد و خاک خودداری کنید زیرا باعث کم شدن میزان چسبندگی و کارایی کارت خواهد شد.
به طور کلی مزیتهای استفاده از کارتهای تله در کنار گیاهان عبارتند از:
۱٫ کاهش استفاده از سموم کشاورزی شیمیایی.
۲٫ شناسایی آفتها و تعداد جمعیت آفتها در محیط گلخانه یا مزرعه.
۳٫ کنترل و نابودی آفتها.
۴٫ پیشگیری از افزایش جمعیت آفتها با نابودی حشرات بالغ با کاهش میزان تخم ریزی مانند شکار شپشک آردالود نر که قادر به پرواز میباشد.
از این کارتها همچنین میتوان در گاوداریها، دامداری، پرورش قارچ و هرجایی که حشرات با تعداد زیاد وجود دارند استفاده کرد.
کارتهای تله حشرات دارای رنگهای مختلفی از جمله آبی و زرد میباشد. که کارتهای زرد دارای قدرت جذب بالاتری میباشند.
مقاله کارت زرد جلب کننده حشرات چیست؟ به زبان انگلیسی:
Sticky cards are an important part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for greenhouse growers. They are a useful tool to alert you to the presence of certain insect pests. Sticky cards will trap the adult stages of flying insects such as western flower thrips (WFT), whiteflies, fungus gnats, shoreflies, leafminers and winged aphids. Remember that mites, mealybugs, scales, and wingless aphids do not fly and will not be caught on the sticky cards. Also, immature stages of thrips, and whiteflies will not be caught on the cards. Sticky cards can often helps you detect early pest infestations more effectively than will intensive plant sampling. By using sticky cards, you can keep track of insect population trends, and make more informed and timely pest management decisions. However, they are only part of an IPM program that includes visual monitoring and the use indicator plants.
Types of sticky cards
Most commonly, 3 by 5 inch sticky cards are used in the greenhouse. Some cards have a grid system that makes it easier to count the insects on the card. Larger sticky cards are also available. Sticky tapes or ribbons can also be used to trap out insect pests. As an example, some growers place sticky tape on their irrigation booms to trap out nuisance shore flies in their propagation houses.
Yellow or blue colored sticky cards are commercially available. Blue cards may be more attractive to thrips (and even shoreflies), and may be used to detect low thrips populations on especially susceptible crops. Yellow sticky cards are best used for general pest monitoring.
Some Suggestions on Using Sticky Cards
Use at least 3 to 4 cards per 1000 sq. ft., or a minimum of one card per 1000 sq. ft with additional cards placed near doors, vents, and over insect-sensitive plant species or cultivars. Use clothespins and stakes to vertically attach sticky cards just above (4 to 6 inches) the crop canopy. As plants increase in height, move the sticky cards upward on the stake.
Glue two spring-type clothespins together with the clips facing in opposite directions. Attach one clothespin’s clip to a wooden stake. Attach the other clothespin clip to the sticky card. As the plant matures, you can move the sticky card higher. Cards should be placed above the crop canopy to attract whiteflies, fungus gnats, thrips etc. Cards can be placed closer to the media surface to attract fungus gnats.
If you are releasing biological control agents with a winged stage, reduce the number of sticky cards used. Adult parasitic wasps will be caught on the traps! Consult with your biological control supplier to determine the number of cards needed in your particular situation. If you are using bumble bees for pollination in greenhouse tomato crops, reduce or eliminate the use of blue cards. (Bumble bees are attracted to blue cards).
Cards should be monitored weekly to track trends in insect population development. With increasing temperatures and insect development, spot check cards twice a week. More frequent inspections will allow quicker identification of localized infestations where spot treatments or releases of natural enemies may be beneficial.
Change the cards weekly as the cards will lose their effectiveness trapping insects as their surface becomes coated with debris. You may be able to change their cards less frequently in the winter months because of slower insect development and activity.
The cost of monitoring is primarily due to the time spent identifying and counting insects on the sticky cards and not the initial cost of the cards. In one study, University of California researchers looked at ways that growers may more efficiently use their sticky cards. Yellow sticky cards (4.5 ” by 5.4″) were placed 50 feet apart in three California greenhouses where various bedding plants (African marigold, verbena, geranium, ageratum, dianthus, and petunia) were grown. Sticky cards were placed 8 to 16 inches above the crop and researchers changed the cards once or twice a week. (Note: most growers in Connecticut use 3 ” by 5 “cards for insect monitoring).
Western flower thrips, greenhouse whiteflies, leaf miner adults, and winged aphids were caught on the cards. Whitefly catch tended to be uniform, but more aphids and thrips were caught on the bottom half of the cards. There was also more variation in trap catch along the length compared to the width of the card. The authors suggested to only need to count a one-inch-wide vertical column in the center of each card to estimate the total numbers of insects caught. The researchers concluded, however, that growers should not cut their cards to a 1″ by 5″ size. Larger cards tend to catch a greater diversity of insects than smaller cards, and trap catches tend to increase with size.
Cards should be placed just above the crop canopy to more effectively trap thrips. Placing cards at bench level tends to catch more thrips compared to card placement at hanging basket or floor levels. Card counts may be higher at the ends of the greenhouse, where the passively carried thrips tend to drop out of air circulation patterns. Under mist propagation, fewer thrips will be caught on sticky cards, as adults are less able to fly, due to the water on their fringed wings. In February, it may be helpful to place cards just above the floor level, to detect any early emerging thrips that have overwintered in greenhouses with dirt or gravel floors.
Tolerance levels will vary depending upon the crop, potential damage, time in the production cycle and whether tospoviruses are present. Some growers use a “working tolerance level” of less than 10 thrips per card per week. If tosporviruses are present, the threshold is as close to zero as possible.
Horizontal placement of cards just above the soil surface is more effective than vertical placement just above the crop canopy, especially early in the crop cycle when fungus gnats tend to of most concern.
Tolerance levels will vary depending upon the crop, media mix, and length of the crop production cycle. Some growers use a working tolerance level of five to ten fungus gnats per card per week using horizontal card placement.
منبع: میهن کاکتوس
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